Cooking methods|Moist and Dry Heat methods


COOKING METHODS

Cooking methods


Cooking methods can be classified as "DRY HEAT METHOD AND MOIST HEAT METHOD".
Moist-heat methods are those method in which the food is cooked by steam or water (liquid).
Dry-heat methods are those method in which the food is cooked by direct contact of heat, that is, by hot air, hot metal, radiation or hot fat. We generally classify dry heat methods into two types of categories: with fat and without fat.
Different cooking methods suit different kinds of foods. For example, some meats are high in connective tissue and will be tough unless the tissue is broken down slowly by moist heat. Other meats are low in connective tissue and are naturally tender. They are at their best and juiciest once cooked with dry heat.

There are several factors to think about once selecting a technique of cookery for meat, fish, poultry and vegetables, like the flavour and look imparted by browning, the flavour imparted by fats and therefore the firmness and delicacy of the product.


MOIST HEAT METHODS

Cooking methods


POACH, SIMMER & BOIL(cooking methods) 


To poach, simmer and boil all means that to cook a food in water or a seasoned liquid like stock or maybe milk. The temperature of the liquid determines the method.
1. Poach refers to cooking in a small amount of liquid that is hot, but not actually bubbling. Temperature is about 160 - 180C (71 - 82). Poaching is used to cooking delicate foods like fish and eggs. It is also used to partially cook variety meats to get rid of odors and undesirable flavors which can be eliminated by poaching and which will firm up the product before the actual cooking.
2. Simmer refers to cooking in a hot liquid that is bubbling very gently. Temperatures are generally 185 - 205F (85 - 96C). Most foods cooked in a liquid are simmered. The high temperatures and agitation are detrimental to most foods.
3. Boil refers to cooking in a very hot liquid that is bubbling rapidly and is greatly agitated. Water boils at 212F (100C) at sea level. It does not matter how high the burner is turned, the temperature of the liquid will go no higher. Boiling is generally reserved for vegetables and certain starch products. The high temperature would cause protein foods to toughen (meats and fish) and the rapid bubbling would break up delicate products.
4. To blanch means to cook an item very briefly, usually in hot water, but sometimes, as in the case of French fries, in hot fat. There are two ways of blanching in water: a. Put the item in cold water and simmer for a few seconds and then plunge into cold water.
b. Place the item in rapidly boiling water, bring the water back to a boil, remove the item and cool rapidly.


A rule of thumb, for simmering and poaching, before food introduced to simmer or poach,the liquid should first be brought to a boil to compensate for the loss in temperature. The heat is then adjusted to maintain a steady temperature.


STEAMING(cooking methods) 

To steam means to cook foods by exposing them directly to steam.
1. In quantity cooking, this is usually done in special steam cookers. These are designed to accept special pans. Steaming can also be done on a rack above boiling water. This method is more cumbersome.
2. Steaming also means to cooking  in a covered pan, so that it cooks in the steam formed by its own moisture. This method is usually referred to as en papilotte, where the food is wrapped in parchment or foil. `Baked’ potatoes wrapped in foil are actually steamed.
3. Steam at normal pressure is 212F (100C), the same as boiling water. However, steam have much more higher temperature than boiling water and cooks very rapidly. Cooking times must be carefully controlled to avoid overcooking.4. A pressure steamer is a pressure cooker that holds steam under pressure. The temp. of the steam then goes higher than 212F (100C)

Steaming is widely used for vegetables. It cooks them rapidly without agitation and minimizes the nutrient, color and flavor loss normally associated with boiling.



BRAISING(cooking methods) 

Cooking methods




Braise refers to cooking covered in a small amount of liquid, generally after preliminary browning. Then cooking would  be done on a bed of vegetables and most often, the liquid used for the cooking is served with the foodstuff as a sauce.
1. braised meats are usually tanned 1st using a dry heat technique like pan cookery or searing. this offers a fascinating look and color and flavor to the product and to the sauce.
2. cookery also refers to cooking some vegetables like cabbage and leeks, while not the preliminary browning.
3. Food being braised isn't fully coated with liquid throughout the cooking method. the top of the product is generally cooked by steaming.
4. braising is completed on the range top or might even be done in the kitchen appliance. kitchen appliance braising has 2 advantages: one. Uniform cooking, because the heat penetrates the food from all sides and not simply the bottom. 2. Less attention is needed. within the kitchen appliance the foods can cook slowly and gently while not having to be checked often.
5. in the cookery of meats, typically large joints or whole birds (like chicken, duck) are cooked during this technique.
STEWING
To stew means that to cook items of meat or fish or vegetables using fairly massive amounts of liquids.
1. The food things are commonly cut into little cubes. tougher cuts of meat and more durable vegetables are cooked by this technique.
2. The liquid is generally at simmering point and is enough to only cover the whole foodstuff.
3. In stewing, a lot of the nutrients, flavor and style of the food item is transferred to the liquid.

Stewing is almost constant as simmering and therefore the principles are constant. simmering refers to a preliminary technique of preparation whereas stewing refers to the creating of a dish. 



DRY HEAT METHODS



ROAST & BAKE(cooking methods) 

Cooking methods


To roast and to bake means that to cook foods by surrounding them with hot dry air, typically within the kitchen appliance. cooking on a spit is also said as roasting.
Roasting usually applies to meat and poultry.
Baking applies to bread, pastries and cakes & cookies. Fish might even be baked.
1. cooking uncovered is important to cooking. Covering holds in steam, changing the method from dry to damp heat cooking.
2. Meat is typically roast on a rack. This rack prevents the meat from simmering in its own juices and fat. It also permits hot air to circulate around the meat. A rack of roughly cut vegetables might even be used.

3. once roasting in a typical kitchen appliance, the cook ought to allow for uneven temperatures within the different components of the kitchen appliance by often shifting the position of the product. sometimes the back of the kitchen appliance is hotter as heat is lost close to the door.

BROILING(cooking methods) 

Cooking methods


To broil means that to cook by radiant heat from above.

The terms broiling, griddling and grilling are typically confused. grilling is often known as broiling and griddling is termed grilling. For functions of clarity, broiling is done on a broiler, griddling on a griddle plate and grilling on a griller!

1. broiling may be a fast high heat cooking method that's typically used just for tender meats, poultry, fish and a number of vegetable things.

2. the following rules ought to be applied whereas broiling:

a. turn the warmth on full. cooking temperature is controlled by moving the rack nearer or clear of the warmth supply.

b. Use lower heat for larger and thicker things and for things that got to be done. Use higher heat for agent items and for items to be hard-boiled rare. this is often done so the within and therefore the outside cook at constant time.

c. preheat the broiler. This helps to sear the product quicker and therefore the hot broiler can build the specified marks on the food item.

d. Dip the food item in oil to stop sticking and to minimize drying. but use caution as too much oil could cause a fire.

e. turn the food over just the once, to cook from either side and to avoid overhandling.

3. a low intensity broiler is termed a salamander and is employed for browning the top of dishes and provides some melting before the service.


GRILLING, GRIDDLING & PAN BROILING(cooking methods) 


Grilling, Griddling and Pan-broiling are all dry heat methods of cooking that use heat from below.

1. grilling is finished on an open grid over a heat supply, which can be charcoal, an electrical component or gas heated. Moving the food things from hotter to cooler places on the grill regulates cooking temperatures. Grilled things should be turned over once throughout the cooking method to make sure even cooking.
Cooking methods

2. Griddling is finished on a solid cooking surface known as the griddle, with or while not little quantities of fat. to prevent sticking. The temperature is adjustable and is around 350F/177C. this is often a lot of less than on a grill. additionally to meats, things like pancakes and eggs may be cooked on a griddle. Grooved griddles have a solid top with raised ridges and are designed to cook like grills and leave fascinating marks on the surface of the food. though they will appear constant as food cooked on the grill, meats cooked on the griddle don't have the charcoal-grilled flavor imparted whereas cooking on a grill.

3. Pan – broiling is like griddling, except it's done on a frying or sauté pan or skillet rather than on a griddle surface. Fat should be poured off because it accumulates, or the method would become pan-frying.


DRY HEAT METHODS USING FAT




SAUTE(cooking methods) 

Cooking methods

To sauté means that to cook in little amounts of fat.

1. The French word sauter means that `to jump’, referring to the action of tossing small pieces of food on a sauté pan. However, larger slices of meat or vegetables may well be sauteed while not really tossing.

2. Note these two important principles:

a. heat the pan before adding the food to be cooked. The food should be cooked quickly, or it'll begin to simmer in its own juices.

b. don't overcrowd the pan instead the temperature can lower.

3. Meats to be sauteed are often dusted with flour to prevent sticking and help achieve uniform browning.

4. after sauteing, a liquid like stock or perhaps wine or water is swirled in the pan to dissolve browned bits of food sticking to the base or the sides. this is called deglazing. The liquid becomes part of the sauce that's served with the foodstuff.


PAN FRYING(cooking methods) 

Cooking methods

To pan – fry means that to cook in a very moderate quantity of fat in a pan over moderate heat.

1. Pan-frying is similar to sauteing, except that more fat is used and the cooking time is longer. Larger items are used and it impossible to toss them.

2. Pan-frying is normally done over lower heat than sauteing, because larger pieces are being cooked.

3. the quantity of fat used depends on the food being seared. only alittle quantity are going to be needed for eggs, but meat and fish things would need a bit more.

4. Most food things would be needed to be turned over at least once for even cooking.


DEEP FRYING(cooking methods) 

Cooking methods


To deep fry means that to cook food submerged in hot fat. Quality in a deep fried product is characterised by the subsequent properties:

- minimum fat absorption

- minimum wet loss (i.e. not overcooked)

- enticing golden color

- crisp coating or surface

- no off flavors (sometimes imparted by the cooking fat)

Many foods are dipped in a breading or in a batter before frying. This forms a protecting coating between food and fat and helps provide the product crispness, color and flavor.

Guidelines for deep frying:


1. Fry at correct temperatures. Most foods are deep-fried at 350 to 375F (170 to 190C). frying at too low a temperature typically causes excessive oiliness in fried in fried foods.
2. Don’t overload the baskets. Doing therefore greatly lowers the fat temperature

3. Use good quality fat. the simplest fat for cooking contains a high smoke point.
4. Replace fifteen – two hundredth of the fat with fresh amounts after daily use.
5. Discard spent fat. recent fat loses frying ability, browns excessively and imparts an off flavor.
6. Avoid frying strong and delicate flavoured foods within the same fat, if possible. french fries mustn't style like fried fish.
7. Fry as near to the service time as possible. The food moisture quickly makes the breading or the batter soggy.

8. defend fat from the following:

- Heat: shut down the fire after frying or to a lower holding temperature.
- Oxygen: keep fat coated in between use
- Water: remove excess moisture from food before frying.
- Salt: ne'er salt the food over the fryer.
- Food particles: dirt off loose crumbs before frying and skim the fat often.


PRESSURE FRYING(cooking methods) 

Cooking methods


Pressure frying means that deep-frying in a special coated fryer that traps the steam given off by the food being seared and will increase the pressure within the kettle. Pressure cooking needs correct timing, as a result of the product can't be seen while it's cooking. in a normal fryer, even though the fat may be at 350F (175C) the temperature within the food won't rise above 212F (100C), the boiling point of water. in a pressure frier, this temperature is raised and cooks the food much faster without excessive browning. At the same time, the fat temperature might be lower (325F/165C).

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