Types of sauces| mother sause|derivatives

SAUCES
Sauces is a cold or hot thick or thin liquid which can eat with food.
It have lost some of their importance in the modern kitchen setup, like stocks. The skill of the Chef Saucier was second to none and sauce making was and important and treasured art. Most of the decline could be attributed to the advent of convenience foods and the eating habits of people.
Types of sauce

However, much of this change is due to misunderstandings. How many times have we heard people exclaim `I don’t want all these sauces, give me plain and simple food’ and then proceed to pour ketchup and chili sauce over everything from French fries to burgers and even pizzas!! This could also be attributed to poorly made sauces. No one likes thick and pasty sauces over their meat or vegetables or salty but otherwise tasteless sauces gumming up their meat and fish. But just because some chefs serve badly made sauces, there is no reason to reject all sauce cookery. In fact, good sauce making is the pinnacle of good cooking, both in the skill they require and the excitement and variety they create in the food. Very often the most memorable part of a meal is the excellent sauce that accompanied the meat or the fish. A sauce works like a seasoning. It enhances and accents the flavor of the food. It should not dominate, overpower or hide the food.

 

DEFINITION


A sauce is defined as a flavorful liquid, usually thickened, which is used to flavor, season and enhance other foods.

A sauce adds the following qualities to food:

- moistness
- Flavor
- Richness
- Appearance, color and shine
- Interest and appetite appeal

CLASSIFICATION

Sauces can be classified as under:

- Mother sauces/leading sauces
- Derivative/secondary sauces
- Emulsion sauces
- Proprietary sauces
- Dessert sauces
- Miscellaneous sauces


THE STRUCTURE OF A SAUCE


Three kinds of ingredients make up the structure of a sauce.

- A Liquid, which have the body of the sauce
- A Thickening agent
- Additional seasoning and flavoring agents

LIQUID


A liquid agent provides the base and the body of the sauce:

Milk for the Béchamel
Stock for the Veloute and Espagnole
Butter for the hollandaise
Oil for the Mayonnaise

THICKENING AGENTS


A sauce must be thick enough to cling lightly to the foods; otherwise it will run off and lie in a puddle at the bottom of the dish. This does not mean that it should be heavy and pasty either. Starches are the most common thickening agents used in sauces but there are others as well.

- Roux : Cooked mixture of butter and flour
- Beurre manie : uncooked mixture of butter and flour
- Whitewash: blend of milk and flour
- Slurry: blend of water and flour
- Corn starch: blend of corn flour and water. Used when a clear glossy texture is required.
- Arrowroot: used like cornstarch but gives an even clearer sauce.
- Waxy maize: Used when sauce is to be frozen. Flour and other starches break down and lose their thickening power when they are frozen. Waxy Maize does not.
- Breadcrumbs: Both fresh and dry will thicken sauces very quickly as they have already been cooked.
- Egg Yolks: used as thickening in emulsion sauces such as mayonnaise and Hollandaise.
- Egg Yolk and Cream Liaison: Thick cream also adds thickness and flavor to the sauce. Egg yolks have the power to thicken because of the coagulation of the protein present in the yolk, when heated. Besides thickening, the liaison also gives richness, flavor & smoothness to the sauce.


OTHER FLAVORING INGREDIENTS


In order to vary the basic sauce, other flavoring and seasoning ingredients are added to the sauce. They provide character to the finished sauce. This also makes it possible for sauces to accompany different dishes, as the different flavors will vary and complement a variety of tastes.



STANDARDS FOR QUALITY SAUCES


1. Consistency & Body:


Most sauces should be smooth with no lumps. They should not be too thick and pasty. They must be thick enough to coat the foods lightly.

2. Flavor:


The flavor of the sauce should be distinctive and well balanced. There must be a proper degree of seasoning with no starchy taste. The flavor of sauce should be selective to enhance or complement the food.

3. Appearance:


The appearance of sauce must be smooth with a good shine and gloss. It should have the requisite color: rich brown for the espagnole, pale ivory for the veloute and white (not gray) for the béchamel.


MISCELLANEOUS SAUCES


These are sauces that do not fit into any of the above classifications. These include:

Mint Sauce for Roast lamb
Horse radish sauce for Roast Beef
Bread Sauce for Roast Chicken
Cranberry sauce for Roast Turkey
Apple sauce for Roast Pork
Raisin Sauce for Ham
Orange sauce for Roast duck


DESSERT SAUCES


These are sauces, which are served exclusively for desserts. These will include

- Custard sauce for steamed and baked puddings
- Jam Sauce for ice creams and sundaes
- Chocolate sauce
- Rum sauce
- Brandy sauce
- Melba sauce

SAUCES (CONTD) MAYONNAISE



Mayonnaise is a semi –solid emulsion of edible oils, egg yolks, vinegar (or lemon juice) and seasonings. Generally, commercially prepared mayonnaise contains not less than 50% vegetable oils and the sum of the oil and the egg yolk should not be less than 78%. Some products add starch pastes to aid in the emulsification and that do not otherwise comply with the standards of Mayonnaise are termed as salad dressings.

Preparation of Mayonnaise that will stand up well and not separate involves certain factors and techniques.

An emulsion is more readily achieved when all ingredients are at room temperature. Cold oil is difficult to break up into small fat globules that will ensure easy emulsification. Therefore it is recommended that the oil and the egg yolk be at room temperature.

Egg yolks are an efficient emulsifying agent because of their ability to hold additional fats. Fresh eggs are superior to older or stale eggs, for use in mayonnaise. Stale egg yolks have a weaker cell structure and thus are not able to hold the oil incorporated. Although older books and traditional recipes call for the use of salad oil or olive oil in the preparation of mayonnaise, modern chefs prefer the use of refined oil. This has a more neutral flavor and does not overpower the taste of the dish into which it is added. Oil of any popular brand may be used so long as it does not overpower the flavor of the sauce.

Oil and egg yolk are beaten together in the starting preparation step, before the addition of extra oil. Rapid and thorough beating of the eggs and oils in the beginning is one of the most important factors in producing the initial emulsion. The method of adding the oil is a deciding factor in the stability of the emulsion. Oil should be added slowly in the starting and in small quantities. When the emulsion begins to form, the oil should be added more rapidly and in greater volume. Make sure that the egg yolk is absorbing the oil as it is incorporated into the emulsion. The vinegar or lemon juice may be added either in the staring or with the oil at various stage. Vinegar or lemon juice will make emulsion more liquid and thin. It also reduces the intensity of the yellow color of the egg yolk.
Separation of the emulsion may occur if:

1. Oil is added too fast
2. Oil is added in large volume at once
3. Improper and inefficient mixing techniques are used
4. Ingredients are at the wrong temperature


Separation may be corrected by:


1. Starting with a fresh egg yolk and using the separated mixture as the oil
2. Start with  small quantity of prepared mayonnaise and using the separated mixture as the oil
3. Add one or two tablespoons of warm water to the separated mixture and mix vigorously

It is obvious that re emulsifying requires additional cost and labor besides time. Strict observance of quantities and prescribed methods will lessen the possibility of the sauce separating.

Fresh Mayonnaise may be stored in the refrigerator for upto two weeks and 3 to 5 C. Remember; mayonnaise is a cold, UNCOOKED sauce that contains egg yolk, which is a perfect medium for the growth and multiplication of bacteria. A thin layer of oil maybe found on the surface of mayonnaise . It will useful to form a protective layer and preserve the mayonnaise for longer time. It can be so easily mixed  into the sauce just before use. Upon storage, this layer will once again

BASIC RECIPE


Egg Yolk 1 no
Salt a pinch
Oil 150 ml
Mustard paste 1 tablespoon
White pepper powder a pinch
White vinegar/
Lemon juice 15 ml

Method: Select an acid repelling bowl. Add egg yolks, seasoning and vinegar.
Beat well until well mixed
In beginning, Add the oil, slowly  and then a little faster.
When the mixture becomes heavy and sticks to the whisk, check the seasoning. Now add in the rest of the oil.

No any other flavorings agent should be added to mayonnaise, which could be overpower the various sauces, which derive from basic mother sauce. If fruit juices such as orange and pineapple are to be used, omit the vinegar and lemon juice from the recipe.

Containers:

Always check the container that is to be used to prepare a mayonnaise. It should not react with the acid in the sauce. Aluminum and copper should be avoided. Glass, stainless steel, enamel are all ideal for making mayonnaise. Also insure that the vessel is totally clean and does not have any unwanted flavors already in it.
Six Mother Sauces Derivatives :---


Brown Sauce Derivatives (Demi-Glace):-


Bordelaise - Red Wine Reduction / Poached Marrow
Chasseur - Shallot / Tomato concassé/ Mushroom / White Wine
Lyonnaise - Onions fried in butter
Madeira - Madeira Wine
Périgueux - Chopped Truffles / Madeira
Robert - White Wine / Mustard / Butter / Onions
Velouté Sauce Derivatives:--

Allemande - Veal Stock / Mushrooms
Curry - Veal Stock / Apple  / Coconut Milk / Onions/ Curry
Normande - Fish Stock / Mushrooms / Oysters / Egg Yolk / Butter / Cream
Diplomate - Sauce Normande / Lobster / Truffle / Lobster Butter
Suprême - Chicken Stock / Reduced Heavy Cream
Aurore - Sauce Suprême / Tomato
Hongroise - Sauce Suprême (Veal Base) / Onion / Paprika / White Wine
Vin Blanc - Fish Stock / Shallot / Butter / Fines Herbs
Béchamel Sauce Derivatives:--

Aomard à l'Anglaise - Anchovy / Lobster / Cayenne
Cardinal - Fish Stock  / Cream / Lobster Butter/ Truffle
Crème - Cream / Lemon Juice
Mornay - Butter / Gruyère & Parmesan Cheese
Soubise - Chopped Onion
Oeufs à l'Anglaise - Diced Hard Boiled Egg / Nutmeg
Tomato Sauces
Chaufroid - Aspic Jelly
Meat - Cooked Ground Meat
Nantua - Mirepoix (Onion, Celery, Carrot) fried in Crayfish Butter   / Fish Velouté / Cayenne/ White Wine / Cognac/ Tomatoes
Portugaise - Fried Onions, Tomato Concassé / Meat Glaze / Garlic / Parsley
Provençal - Sliced Mushrooms / Sugar / Garlic Parsley / Oil

Hollandaise Sauce Derivatives:--


Bavaroise - Reduction of Pepper  / Parsley / Vinegar / Crayfish / Garnished w/ Crayfish Tails / Thyme/ Bay Leaves / Horseradish
Béarnaise - Tarragon & Chervil
Choron - Béarnaise with Tomato
Foyot - Bearnaise with Meat Glaze
Maltaise - Blood Orange
Mousseline - Whipped Cream
Noisette - Brown Butter
Paloise - Mint

mayyonaise Derivatives;:--


Tarter sauce
Thousandisland dressing
Cocktail sauce
Remoulade
Mustart

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