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PRE PREPARATION OF FOOD (MISE-EN-SCENE)

To achieve success within the FoodService industry, cooks need more that the power to organize delicious, attractive, and nutritious foods. They must have a talent for organization and efficiency. In any #kitchen thee are an excellent many tasks to be completed over a given time and by a limited number of workers. No matter when these tasks are done, all of them must close at one crucial point: service time. Only if pre preparation has been thoroughly and systematically will service go smoothly.

Good chefs pride oneself within the thoroughness and quality of their 
 pre-preparation or mise-en-place (pronounced meez-on-plahss). This French term meaning “everything put in place,” has become almost an expert password in kitchens, because food service professionals understand its importance to the success of the establishment.

This lesson deals with the essential concepts of pre preparation also as variety of specific operations that are normally a part of the mise-en-place.

MISE EN PLACE:
“EVERYTHING READY”
Even on the simplest level, pre-preparation is necessary. If you prepare just one short recipe, you want to first.

  • Assemble your tools.
  • Assemble your ingredients.
  • Wash, trim, cut, prepare, and measure your raw materials.
  • Prepare your equipment (preheat oven, line baking sheets etc)
Only then can you begin the actual preparation. When meat items are to be prepared in a commercial kitchen, things is far more complex. Dealing with this complexity is that the basis of kitchen organization.

PLANNING AND ORGANIZING FOR PRE-PREPARATION


The problem


Every food service operation faces a basic conflict between two unavoidable facts:

There is far an excessive amount of work to try and do in a kitchen to leave until the moment, so some work much be done ahead.
Most food is at their highest quality immediately after preparation, and that they deteriorate as they're held.

The solution


To solve this problem the chef must plan the prep-reparation carefully. Planning generally follows these steps:

Break down menu items into its stages of production. address any recipe, note that the procedures are divided into a sequence of steps, which must be Done in a particular order to form a finished product.

Determine which stages could also be done in advance.

  • The first step of any recipe, weather written or not, is always a part of advance preparation: assembling and preparing the ingredients. This includes cleaning and cutting procedure, cutting and trimming meats, and preparing breading and batters for frying.
  • Succeeding steps of a recipe maybe done in advance if they will then be held without loss of quality.
  • Final cooking should be done as close as possible to service, for max freshness.
Frequently separate parts of a recipe, like a sauce or stuffing, are prepared in advanced , and therefore the dish is assembled at the last moment .

In general, items cooked by dry heat methods, like broiled steaks, sautéed fish, and french fries, don't hold well. Large roasts are a very important exception to this rule rule. Items cooked by moist heat, like braised beef, soups, and stews are usually better suited to re heating or holding during a steam table. Very delicate items should be freshly cooked.

Determine the simplest way to hold the item at its end of pre preparation.

  • Sauces and soups are frequently kept hot, above 1400f(600c), for service in steam tables or other holding equipment. Many foods like vegetables, however, should be kept hot for only short periods, because they quickly become over cooked.
  • Refrigerator temperatures below 400F (40C) are best for pre serving the standard of most foods, especially perishable meats, fish, and vegetables, before final cooking or reheating.
Determine how long it takes to arrange each stage of every recipe. Plan a production schedule beginning with the preparation that takes the longest. Many operations are often carried on at once, because they don’t all require your complete attention the complete time. it's going to take six to eight hours to form a stock but you don’t need to stand and watch it all that point.

Examine recipes to see if they could be revised for better efficiency and quality as served.

For example:

Instead of preparing a full batch of green peas and holding for service within the steam table, you may blanch and chill them and heat portion to order in a sauté pan, steamer, or microwave.
Instead of holding a large batch of veal scaloppine in mushroom-sauce within the steam table, you would possibly prepare and hold the sauce, sauté the veal to order, combine the portion of sauce, and serve fresh from the pan.

Caution: – unless you responsible of the kitchen don't change a recipe without authorization without your supervisor.

 

The Goal

The goal of pre preparation is to try and do the maximum amount work in advance as possible without loss of quality. At service time, all energy can then be used for finishing each item immediately before serving, with the uttermost attention to quality and freshness. Many preparations techniques in common use are designed for the convenience of the cooks at the expense of quality. Remember quality should take highest priority.

PREPARATION FOR SET MEAL SERVICE AND EXTENDED MEAL SERVICE


Set Meal service


  • All Customers eat at one time .
  • Often called “quantity cooking” because large batches are prepared in advanced.
  • Examples: school, cafeterias, banquets, employee dinning rooms.

The traditional methods of set meal preparation, still widely used are to organize the complete quantity of every item during a single large batch and too keep it hot for the duration of the meal service. This method has two major disadvantages.


  • Deterioration of quality because of long holding.
  • Large quantities of left over.

Modern high-speed equipment like pressure steamers, convection ovens, infrared ovens, and microwave ovens, modify a system small batch cooking. Quantities needed are divided into small batches, placed in pans ready for final cooking or heating, then cooked only as required. Its advantages sure as follows: –


  • Fresher food, because it's not held so long .
  • Fewer leftovers because pans not needed aren't cooked.
  • Small batch cooking also accommodated items prepared in advance and frozen or chilled for storage.

Extended meal service.

Customers eat at different times.
Often called “a la carte cooking” because customers usually select items from a written menu (“carte” in French)
Examples: restaurants, short –order counters.
Individual items are cooked “to order” instead of cooked ahead, but prep reparation is extensive, right down to the ultimate(final) cooking stage.

The order cook, as an example must have everything able to go: cold meats, tomatoes and other sandwich ingredients sliced and arranged, spreads prepared and prepared, hamburger patties shaped, garnished prepared and then so on. If the cook has got to stop during the service to try and do any of those things, orders will copy and service will drop behind.

A steak that takes10 minute to broil could also be cut and trimmed in advanced , but broiling should be started 10mins before it's to be served.

Obviously if the last step within the recipe is to braise the item for 1 ½ hrs one cannot wait until an order comes in before starting to braise. An experienced cook will estimate very closely what percentage orders are going to be needed during the meal period and prepare a batch that ideally are going to be finished when service begins.

PREPARATION TECHNIQUES ARE ADEPTED TO STYLE OF SERVICE 


Note the difference in these two methods for Chicken Chasseur in both cases; the ultimate (final) product is chicken during a broom sauce with mushrooms, shallots, wine(white) and tomatoes.


  • Quantity method: – Chicken Chasseur.
  • Brown chicken in fat; remove.
  • Sauté shallots and mushrooms in same fat
  • Add flour to form a roux.
  • Add white wine, tomatoes brown stock and seasoning; simmer until thickened.
  • Add chicken; braise until done.
  • A la carte method: – Chicken Chasseur
  • Prepare sauce Chasseur in advance; hold in brain Marie.
  • For each order :
  • Brown chicken in sauté pan and finish cooking in oven.
  • Deglaze pan with white wine; reduce.
  • Add 1 portion of sauce; add chicken and simmer briefly; serve.

CLEANING AND CUTTING THE RAW MATERIALS


ROUGH PREP
Rough prep means the preliminary processing of ingredients to the purpose at which they will be utilized in cooking. Rough prep usually applies to fresh vegetables and fruits, as they typically require much washing and trimming. Meat and other ingredients can also require cutting and trimming. (Some operation do much of their own meat cutting, others buy ready cut portion control meats). Vegetable, meat, poultry, and seafood chapters contain detailed information on preliminary preparation of specific items.

USING THE KNIFE
There are many types of labor-saving equipment for cutting, chopping, and slicing fresh foods. The chef’s knife or French knife however, remains the cooks most significant and versatile cutter. The knife is more precise than a machine. Unless you're cutting an outsized quantity the knife can even be faster. Cleaning a large machine takes time. to induce the most effective use, out of your knife, you want to learn to stay it sharp and handle it properly.

KEEPING A SHARP KNIFE


The sharpening stone.

A stone is that the best tool for sharpening a chef’s knife. Electric sharpeners wear away an excessive amount of of your expensive knife, and that they don't make nearly as good an edge.

The steel.

This tool is employed to not sharpen the edge but to true the edge (to perfect it or to smooth irregularities) and to take care of the edge (to keep it sharp because it is used).

Handling the knife

The grip


Proper grip gives you maximum control over the knife. the right grip increases your cutting accuracy and speed, it prevents slipping, and it lessens the chance of an accident. the kind of grip you utilize depends partially on the work you're doing and therefore the size of the knife. Many chiefs feel that really grasping the blade with the thumb and forefinger during this manner gives them greatest control.

BASIC CUTS AND SHAPES

Cutting food products into uniform shapes and sizes is very important for 2 reasons:

It ensures even cooking.
It enhances the looks of the product 
Given below are the names and dimensions of some common shapes.

  • Brunoise (broon-wahz);(3mm x 3mm x 3mm)
  • Small dice :(6mm x 6mm x 6mm)
  • Medium dice: (12mm x 12mm x 12mm)
  • Large dice: (2cm x2 cm x 2cm)
  • Julienne (or allumette): (3mm x 3mm x 6cm)
  • Batonnet: (6mm x 6mm x 6- 7.5cm)
  • French fries or pomme frite: 8-12mm sq x 7.5 cm long.
The following terms describe other cutting techniques:

  • Chop: to chop into irregular shaped pieces.
  • Concasser (con-cass-say): to chop coarsely.
  • Mince: to cut into very fine pieces.
  • Emincer (em-man-say): to chop into very thin slices (does not mean “to mince”).
  • Shred: to chop into thin strips, either with the coarse bade of a grater (manual or power) or with a chief’s knife.




PRELIMINARY COOKING AND FLAVOURING


Advance preparation often requires certain pre cooking and flavoring of ingredients to create them ready to be used within the finished recipe. On the foremost obvious level, if a recipe for a chicken salad call for cooked, diced chicken you want to first cook the chicken before you'll proceed with the recipe. an entire cooking procedure, in such a case, is a component of the mise-en-place or pre-preparation.

BLANCHING AND PAR COOKING

Partial cooking may be a significant a part of advance preparation. It requires a degree of culinary skill and judgment to see when and how much cooking is important or desirable. Partial cooking is also done by any moist-heat or dry heat methods. Commonly used are simmering or boiling (par boiling), steaming and deep-frying (especially for potatoes). The term blanching may mean any of those methods, but it always implies very brief cooking.

There are 4 main reasons for blanching or par cooking: –

  • To increase holding quality:
Heating helps preserve the foods by

  • Destroying bacteria that cause spoilage.
  • Destroys enzymes that dis-colours foods (as when potatoes turn brown) and help them deteriorate.
  • To save time:
It takes less time to complete parboiled vegetables for service than it does raw vegetables. Large batches of foods is also blanched and chilled, and individual portions then finished to order.

Items like roast duck, which might take too long to cook completely to order, are often roasted half to ¾ done, then finished because the order are received.

  • To remove undesirable flavors:
Some meat and certain strong-flavored vegetables like rutabaga are sometimes blanched to create them milder and more acceptable to the customers.

  • To enable the product to be processed further:
For example, vegetables and fruits like tomatoes and peaches also as some nuts are blanched to loosen the skin for peeling.

Sweetbreads are blanched so that they'll be firm enough for slicing and breading or different kinds of handling.

MARINATING

To marinate means to soak a foodstuff during a seasoned liquid so as to:

Flavour the product 
Tenderize the product 
Note: The tenderizing effect of the acids within the marinade is comparatively small. it's still essential to match the right cut of meat with the right cooking techniques for greatest tenderness.

The marinade also can serve as the cooking medium and become a part of the sauce. Vegetables marinades, called vinaigrette are served cold with vegetables as salads or hors d’oeuvres without further cooking or processing.


Guidelines for marinating.

  • Marinate under refrigeration (unless product is to be cooked in just a couple of minutes.)
  • The thicker the product , the longer it takes for the marinade to penetrate. Some foods are marinated every week or longer.
  • Use an acid resistant container, like chrome steel, glass, crockery, or some plastics.
  • Tie spices during a cheesecloth bag (sachet) if easy removal is very important.
  • Cover product completely with marinades. When marinating small items you'll use less liquid, but you need to then turn the product frequently for a penetration.
PREPARATION FOR FRYING

Most foods to be deep-fried with a serious exception of potatoes are first given a protective coating of breading or batter. This coating serves for a purpose.

It helps retain moisture and flavor within the product.
It protects the fat against the moister and salt within the food, which speed deterioration of frying fat.
It protects the food from absorbing an excessive amount of fat.
It gives crispiness, flavour, and good appearance to the product .
BREADING
Breading means coating a product with breadcrumbs or other crumbs or meal before deep-frying, pan-frying, or sautéing.

DREDGING WITH FLOUR
The purpose of dredging is to offer a skinny even coating of flour to a product. Meats to be sautéed or pan-fried are often dredged with flour to offer them a good brown color and to stop sticking. Vegetables like sticks of zucchini are sometimes coated only in flour before deep-frying, to offer them a slight golden color and really thin coating.

BATTERS
Batters are semi liquid mixtures containing flour or other starch. they're utilized in deep-frying to offer a crisp, flavourful coating. There are many various formulas and variations for batters: –

  • Many different liquids are used, including milk, water, or beer.
  • Eggs may or might not be used.
  • Thicker batters make thicker coatings. Too thick a batter will make a heavy and palatable coating.
  • Leavenings are frequently wont to give a lighter product. Theses is also
  • Baking powder
  • Beaten albumen(egg white) 
  • Carbonation from the beer or seltzer utilized in the batter.
HANDLING CONVENIENCE FOODS

Convenience foods are plain and increasingly prominent role within the food industry. Their use has become so important that no student of professional cooking can afford to be without knowledge of them.

A food could also be defined as any product that has been partially or completely prepared or processed by the manufacturer. In other word once you buy a convenience product you're having the manufacturer do some or all of your pre-preparation for you. in fact you want to buy this service as reflected within the price of the product . Although buying the convenience product will likely cost you more than buying the raw material0s, you save in increased kitchen efficiency. As you'll remember labor cost also as food cost must be figured into your menu price.

Processed foods for restaurants and institutions range from partially prepared items which will be used as components in your recipes, like frozen fish fillets, peeled potatoes, concentrated stock bases, and frozen puff pastry, to completely prepared items that require only be reconstituted or served as in, like frozen prepared entrées and frozen pies and pastries. Some items like frozen french-fried potatoes have wide acceptance, while other more fully prepared foods still be resisted by both customer and operator.

In general, the more completely a product has been prepared by the manufactures the less it'll reflect the individuality of the food service operator – the less opportunity the cooks need to provides it to their own character and quality.

Is a stock made up of “scratch” better than a product made up of convenience base? Most quality – conscious chefs would probably answer yes! But the right answer is “Not if the homemade stock is poorly made”. no matter what product you utilize, there's no substitute for quality and care. The fresh product is potentially the most effective, but not if it's badly stored or handled. Convenience foods also need proper handling to maintaining their quality.

Considering the convenience foods as normal products with the a part of the pre preparation completed, instead of as totally different sorts of products unlike your normal raw materials, is that the key to understanding and handling them probably. Convenience products aren't a substitute for culinary knowledge and skill. they ought to be a tool for the great cook instead of a crutch for the bad cook. It takes the maximum amount understanding of basic cooking principals to handle convenience products because it does fresh, raw ingredients, particularly if you would like the convenience products to taste the maximum amount just like the fresh as possible.

Guidelines for Handling Convenience Foods

  • Handle with an equivalent care you give fresh and raw ingredients. Most loss of quality in convenience foods comes from assuming that they're damage-proof and may be treated haphazardly.
  • Examine as soon as received. Particularly, check frozen foods – with a thermometer – to form sure they need not thawed in transits. Put away directly.
  • Store properly. Frozen foods must be held at 00F (-180C) or lower. Check your freezer with a thermometer regularly. Refrigerated foods must stay chilled below 400F (40C) to slow the spoilage. Shelf-stable foods (dry products, canned food, etc) are “shelf-stable only stored properly, in a cool, dry place, tightly sealed.
  • Know the self-life of every product. Nothing will keep forever not even convenience foods. (Some, like peeled potatoes are even more perishable than unprocessed ingredients.) Rotate stock “ first in first out “. And don’t stock quite necessary.
  • Defrost frozen foods properly. Ideally defrost during a tempering box set at 280F to 30oF(-2oC to -1oC) or lacking that, within the refrigerator. This takes advance planning and timing because large items will take several days to thaw.
If you're short of time time, the second best way to defrost foods in under cold, running water, within the original wrapper. Never defrost at room-temperature or in warm water: the heat encourages bacterial growth and spoilage. don't refreeze thawed foods. Quality will greatly deteriorate. Certain foods like frozen french-fried potatoes and a few individual portion prepared entrée, are designed to be cooked without thawing.

  • Know how and to what extend the product has been prepared. Partially cooked foods need less heating in final preparation than do raw foods. Some cooks prepare frozen, cooked crab, for instance as if they were raw; by the time the customer receives them, they're over cooked, dry and tasteless. Frozen vegetables, for a second example, are blanched and sometimes need only to be heated briefly. Manufactures are happy to offer full directions and servings suggestions for his or her products. At least you ought to read the package directions.
  • Use proper cooking methods. Be flexible. Much modern equipment has been designed especially foe convenience foods. Don’t restrict yourself to standard ranges and ovens if compartment steamers, convention ovens, or microwave ovens might do better job more efficiently.
  • Treat convenience food as if you, not the manufacturer, did the pre preparation. Make the foremost of your opportunity to use creativity and to serve Best quality that you can. . Your final preparation, plating, and garnishing should be as careful as if you made it from scratch.

PORTION CONTROL

Portion control, mean s measuring portions served to make sure that the quantity is correct, which recipe have proper yield. Portion control is primarily, the matter of measurement and measurement begins at the beginnings of preparations, not at the serving line. Portion control begins once you measured ingredients for a recipe, once you form up hamburgers patties or cut steaks and check them on a little scale, once you carefully scale a custard mix into individual baking cups or measure the quantity of stuffing to travel into each stuffed chicken breast. Measurements involves measuring tools – scales, ladles, scoops then on. Accuracy may be a good kitchen habit to develop. Don’t guess. It can cost you money and customer satisfaction. 

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